Right To Work In Syndicated Professions For Palestinian Refugees In Lebanon

Integration of Refugees - Fifth Edition of the Averroes Academy

For more than seventy years, Palestinians are refugees in Lebanon. However, the Lebanese legislator has not yet provided a legal definition to those refugees. They are administratively divided into three categories :

- Refugees registered with the Ministry of Interior and Municipalities, the Directorate of Political Affairs and the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA).

- Refugees registered with the Directorate of Political

Affairs at the Lebanese Ministry of Interior but are not registered with UNRWA.

- Refugees who are not registered with the Lebanese State or UNRWA (loss of identity card).

Lebanon is not among the countries that committed to the 1951 Refugee Convention or its 1976 Protocol. This means that the legal protection granted to refugees and asylum seekers in Lebanon is limited.

Despite their unique and protracted refugee situation, the Lebanese law lack a coherent legal framework applying to Palestine refugees. However, this does not mean that Lebanon is not committed to the legal principles resulting from the various charters and treaties to which it is a party and which require the State to adopt protective measures in order to ensure the respect their human rights.

The status of Palestine refugees is regulated through few ad-hoc provisions contained in a range of laws, establishing a complex and at times contradictory legal system.

In general, Palestine Refugees born in Lebanon (PRL) legally reside in Lebanon (without a residence permit), but they have the status of foreigners. The Lebanese law accords certain rights to foreigners based on the reciprocity of treatment, but this principle is impossible to apply for Palestinians in the absence of a functioning Palestinian state.

As in international relations and treaties, the principle of reciprocity states that favors, benefits, or penalties that are granted by one state to the citizens or legal entities of another, should be returned in kind.

For example, the Lebanese Labor Law of 1962 prohibits employers hiring foreign lawyers except where the foreigner's country allows employers to hire Lebanese nationals. Due to Palestine not being a sovereign state, reciprocity does not include Palestinian participation. 

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تضخم البطالة في فلسطين

تعد البطالة العالية في فلسطين من الأسباب الرئيسية التي ساعدت على إرهاق مستقبل الشعب الفلسطيني في ظل الأزمات الاقتصادية والسياسية كالممارسات الإسرائيلية المستمرة يوميا والقيود التي تفرضها دولة الاحتلال على الشعب والحكومة الفلسطينية

تحفيز الاستثمارات الخاصة في البنية التحتية في مصر:

الاستثمار الخاص سواء المحلي أو الأجنبي من أهم ركائز النمو الاقتصادي. ويتخذ المستثمر قراره الاستثماري وفقا لمَوَاطِن تعظيم العائد والربحية. في مصر، وعلى الرغم من أن مشروعات البنية التحتية تتميز بالعائد المضمون والمستقر وعلى الرغم من وضع الدولة قانون

ترخيص سيارات الأجرة المعتمدة على التطبيقات الذكية

يعد قطاع النقل أساس ترتكز عليه مجمل النشاطات الأخرى في العملية الاقتصادية، حيث تحدد بحسبه المدة اللازمة لنقل الموظفين والعاملين إلى أماكن عملهم، وما يرتبط بذلك من رفع أو خفض لمستوى الإنتاجية. وكما في العديد من الدول النامية يعاني هذا القطاع في الأرد