Lebanon has been hosting Syrian refugees since the onset of the Syrian civil war in 2011. The tiny country of 4.5 million people had open-border policy up until January 2015 when Lebanon became the country with the highest percentage of refugees per capita. Since then, some argue that the numbers of Syrian refugees has dropped, yet exact estimates are still hard to find and differ greatly depending on the source. Still, there are over a million Syrian refugees in Lebanon (in addition to 500,000 Palestinian refugees) and more than half of them are of school age. Education is the refugees’ top priority but according to the official Lebanon Crisis Response Plan (LCRP) set forth by the Lebanese government and the United Nations, only 0.02 percent of funds are going towards education, and most of that money is being funneled to the national public school system.
There are three main problems with that:
1.The Lebanese national system is already weak to begin with and since Syrian refugees have
started attending it, its resilience is being constantly tested. Schools are at over capacity even with the double shift programs. There is literally no space for refugees even though there are more Syrians than Lebanese enrolled in public schools where the LCRP identifies 200,970 Lebanese enrolled in formal education compared to 211,411 Syrians (LCRP, 2016). Despite higher numbers of Syrians, 59 percent of Syrian refugees in Lebanon who are of age are still out of formal
schooling. To begin with, 50 percent of public schools in Lebanon are rented spaces that do not even comply with the Effective School Standards (LCRP Education Chapter) so their infrastructure is shaky. Refugees face problems being absorbed by them for multiple reasons including difficulty adjusting to curriculum especially when it is in French, being out of school for too long and unable to reintegrate, discrimination against refugees, and not being able to afford transportation and stationary costs. As a result, Syrian refugees in public schools have a very high dropout rate of 70 percent after age 12 making the public school solution for education not very effective or sustainable.
2.Second, there is a problem with the quality and content of education: the Lebanese curriculum and diploma are very traditional and don’t teach most of the skills that have been identified to be crucial to be taught nowadays. A lot of teachers actually criticize that it is not adapted to the needs of refugees whether in terms of content or by including psychosocial support. Other criticisms are that, in and of itself, the Lebanese curriculum is too long and difficult for most Syrian students to just start learning without having been part of it from the beginning, and that it is too rigid in terms of teaching resources and doesn’t include interactive activities. (Shuayb et al., 2016) The root of this issue is that education for refugees in Lebanon is still seen as emergency mitigation even though refugees have been in the country for seven years now. It is more concerned with “keeping children off the streets” rather than providing effective education, which is why the quality and content of formal education for refugees are mostly ignored.
3.On the other hand, NGOs are providing a more efficient, holistic, tailored education for refugees. They are targeting some of the hard and soft 21st- century skills that are needed, but the main problem they face is that of certification, as they cannot officially show that they have provided education for refugees except by sending them to the public school system, which ultimately reinforces the first problem. As such, this affects their efforts to receive adequate funding and scale their efforts to reach even more refugees with education. Still, despite not receiving official recognition, NGOs played a huge role in mitigating the huge and rapid influx of refugees into Lebanon not just in education but across all sectors.
Addressing these 3 problems is important because education is a long-term solution to the refugee crisis especially when it teaches refugees the required skills needed to have well- paying jobs that enable refugees to no longer be dependent or in need but become self- sufficient individuals. Even if the Lebanese national policies prohibit refugees from working in the country, providing them with effective education is still important as it can actually back up the country’s restrictive policies. Having the right skill sets can help refugees resettle to different countries and actually alleviate the burden on the Lebanese state due to the sheer number of refugees in the country. Moreover, refugees can also work online so that they are not competing with nationals for jobs in the local economy but rather become part of a global workforce. Regardless of the possibilities, what we teach, how we teach, and who is teaching are of crucial importance for education to be as effective as possible in equipping refugees with the appropriate skill sets to land decent jobs that pave the way for self-sufficiency.
تعد البطالة العالية في فلسطين من الأسباب الرئيسية التي ساعدت على إرهاق مستقبل الشعب الفلسطيني في ظل الأزمات الاقتصادية والسياسية كالممارسات الإسرائيلية المستمرة يوميا والقيود التي تفرضها دولة الاحتلال على الشعب والحكومة الفلسطينية
الاستثمار الخاص سواء المحلي أو الأجنبي من أهم ركائز النمو الاقتصادي. ويتخذ المستثمر قراره الاستثماري وفقا لمَوَاطِن تعظيم العائد والربحية. في مصر، وعلى الرغم من أن مشروعات البنية التحتية تتميز بالعائد المضمون والمستقر وعلى الرغم من وضع الدولة قانون
يعد قطاع النقل أساس ترتكز عليه مجمل النشاطات الأخرى في العملية الاقتصادية، حيث تحدد بحسبه المدة اللازمة لنقل الموظفين والعاملين إلى أماكن عملهم، وما يرتبط بذلك من رفع أو خفض لمستوى الإنتاجية. وكما في العديد من الدول النامية يعاني هذا القطاع في الأرد