Turkey hosts more than 3.5 million registered Syrians under the temporary protection regime. This means that a humanitarian crisis has turned into an administrative issue in no time. The administration needs to regulate education policies toward harmonization for Syrian kids, to create a sustainable and more inclusive education system and to help generate opportunities in the job market for future job-seekers. However, Turkey has been already suffering from wrong education policies and mismatch between job seekers’ skills and businesses’ needs. The urgent need of intermediate staff has been disregarded for a long time. This policy brief discusses the necessity of developing and promoting vocational schools, for Syrian as well as Turkish students.
The increasing rate of unemployment in Turkey is a major issue for both the government and the unemployed people. The recent population growth is not compatible with the job market in terms of both quantity and quality. In addition to this economic problem, the current national and international political situation—with cross-border military operations, debates on the government system, conflicts with neighbors and “balanced” politics between Russia and the United States of America—reinforce the volatility of the Turkish currency. This complex political and economic situation increases the vulnerability of citizens and turns the problem into a developmental crisis. However, even if Turkey had not been suffering from such political and economic difficulties, the inconsistent and failed education policies might be considered as the significant root cause of millions of young unemployed people. These policies have drawn Turkey into a severe problem of mismatch between the skills of job seekers and the requirements of employers (ILO, 2014). In order to understand the reasons of this situation, it is useful to examine “the schooling adventure” of the young population through changing education policies. Turkey is known as a nation with the youngest population among European countries, which has been considered as a leverage for the sustainability of its economic development.
According to the Turkish Statistical Institute data, at the end of the year 2016, Turkey’s official population was 79.8 million.
The share of the age group of 15 – 24 was 16.3 percent of the total population, with 12.9 million (Turkish Statistical Institute, 2017). These numbers have been considered as representing a potentially fruitful labor force for a long time; yet the outcomes are not easy to be evaluated when the social, economic and political impacts are taken in consideration. And unfortunately, according to the results of the household labor force survey; the unemployment rate was 19,6 percent in 2016, indicating an increasing trend comparing to previous years. In addition, the rate of the population in NEET (“not in education, employment or training”) situation was 24 percent in 2016, which means the rate of young people neither in education nor in employment also increased (Turkish Statistical Institute, 2017).
So, what has been Turkey’s approach to its pressing unemployment problem? For many years Turkey has had difficulties to generate lasting, stable education policies for its education institutions at various levels. During the last 15 years, the format of the test for admission in secondary education (high school) changed 5 times with the curriculum of the primary schools, while the entry exam for universities changed eight times, including major regulations of curriculum, assessment methods and form. In addition to these changes, the preparatory class aiming at teaching English to high school students was removed from the curriculum of many schools in 2005 (Ministry of National Education, 2018).
The changes in the education system and curriculum during primary and secondary school and misled university department choices turn the new graduates into unemployed young individuals. And this is not the only problem. “A university in each city” policy was seen as a prior solution for the development of the country during the reform age in the aftermath of the Independence War of Turkey. The aim was to create a supply chain with highly- qualified and sophisticated workers. Yet, this policy rapidly turned into a political tool for political parties especially just before the elections during all periods of the Republic. The dramatic increase in the number of universities and of particular faculties caused an unintentional problem: mismatch between supply and demand. The Council of Higher Education announced that law schools, medical schools, engineering schools and economic and administrative science departments should attract students. (The Council of Higher Education, 2018). However, this new labor force does not answer the necessities of the market. So, a major discrepancy between labor market supply and job vacancies occurred. The collective data of The Council of Higher Education and Measuring, Selection and Placement Centre indicates that while the market is in need for sales officers and intermediate staff; the labor force is dominated by a large number of lawyers, doctors, engineers etc. (The Council of Higher Education, 2018).
The solution here is to promote vocational schools to fulfill the requirements of the job market. Yet, even though there was a huge effort for the promotion of vocational schools in the past, Turkish students could not be convinced to register in these schools.
تعد البطالة العالية في فلسطين من الأسباب الرئيسية التي ساعدت على إرهاق مستقبل الشعب الفلسطيني في ظل الأزمات الاقتصادية والسياسية كالممارسات الإسرائيلية المستمرة يوميا والقيود التي تفرضها دولة الاحتلال على الشعب والحكومة الفلسطينية
الاستثمار الخاص سواء المحلي أو الأجنبي من أهم ركائز النمو الاقتصادي. ويتخذ المستثمر قراره الاستثماري وفقا لمَوَاطِن تعظيم العائد والربحية. في مصر، وعلى الرغم من أن مشروعات البنية التحتية تتميز بالعائد المضمون والمستقر وعلى الرغم من وضع الدولة قانون
يعد قطاع النقل أساس ترتكز عليه مجمل النشاطات الأخرى في العملية الاقتصادية، حيث تحدد بحسبه المدة اللازمة لنقل الموظفين والعاملين إلى أماكن عملهم، وما يرتبط بذلك من رفع أو خفض لمستوى الإنتاجية. وكما في العديد من الدول النامية يعاني هذا القطاع في الأرد